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Music Theory Education

 

10. Performance Directions and Signs

10. Performance Directions and Signs

Grade 5. lesson 10 performance directions
and signs

 

 

Italian and German performance directions

 

  There are a few more Italian words to add to the list from previous grades.

  Also in this grade we use some performance directions in German, you will find a list of those below.

 

    In grade 5 you will be expected to know the meaning of the following Italian terms.
 
  Italian terms
                                                                 English meaning

  attacca ...........................................................................go straight on to the next section of music

  dolente...........................................................................sad, mournful

  dolore.............................................................................grief ( doloroso: sorrowful )

  doppio............................................................................movimento twice as fast

  estinto.......................................................................... .as soft as possible, lifeless

  incalzando....................................................................getting quicker

  lacrimoso......................................................................sad

  loco ...................................................................... ........at normal pitch (used to cancel 8va direction)

  lunga ............................................................................long (lunga pausa: long pause)

  lusingando.................................................................. coaxing, in a sweet and persuasive style

  misura.......................................................................... measure (alla misura: in strict time)
  .......................................................................................(senza misura: in free time)

  ossia............................................................................ or, alternatively

  piacevole ................................................................... pleasant

  piangevole................................................................. plaintive, in the style of a lament

  pochettino, poch........................................................rather little

  rinforzando, rf, rfz.......................................................reinforcing

  segue......................................................................... go straight on

  smorzando, smorz....................................................dying away in tone and speed

  teneramente, tenerezza...........................................tenerly, tenderness

  tosto........................................................................... swift, rapid ( but often used in the same sense as troppo)

  volante....................................................................... lying, fast

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The German terms required for grade 5 are:

 

   German Terms                                                          English meaning

  aber ..............................................................................but

  ausdruck..................................................................... expression

  bewegt .........................................................................with movement, agitated

  breit............................................................................. broad, expansive

  ein............................................................................... a, one

  einfach........................................................................ simple

  etwas........................................................................... somewhat, rather

  frohlich.......................................................................  cheerful, joyful

  immer......................................................................... always

  langsam .....................................................................slow

  labhaft..........................................................................lively

  massig.........................................................................at a moderate speed

  mit............................................................................... with

  nicht.............................................................................not

  ohne........................................................................... without

  ruhig ...........................................................................peaceful

  schnell........................................................................ fast

  sehr............................................................................ very

  suss........................................................................... sweet

  traurig........................................................................ sad

  und.......................................................................... ..and

  voll............................................................................. full

  wenig........................................................................ little

  wieder.................................................................... ..again

  zart............................................................................ tender, delicate

  zu........................................................................... ...to, too

 

 

 

Signs used to show reiterstions and repeats.

  Many of the ornament signs have been explained in grade 4. No new ones for this grade, but you may be
  asked to recognise a ornament which is written-out, by showing the appropriate, but not vice-versa.

 

  Questions will be asked from a passage of music for voices or instruments.

  These questions will include:

 1. Types of voice, along with names of instruments.

 2. Instrument family groups, and the basic way in which they produce their sounds
  ( i.e. single reed, valves etc... ).

 3. The clef used.

 4. Musical observation, in other words to test your ability to apply theoretical knowledge to real music.

 

  Rests showing silence for more than four bars:

  Once we pass four bars of silence, you will find passages marked like these:

  Sometimes even from two bars, but it is mostly from four. Orchestral players, like brass and percussion,
  frequently have nothing to play for many bars. Therefore, their music is scored with the type of rests shown
  below. Obviously the number written above is telling the performer how many silent bars for them.

  This method also saves space on the manucript.

 

01 performance symbols

02 performance symbols

 

 

 

   Repetition of notes:

  Signs which we can call music shorthand may be used to indicate a repetition of notes. Simply by drawing a
  stripe or stripes through the stem of the notes.

  Take a look at these examples, you will soon get the idea.

 

03 symbols re performance

 

  Chords may also be repeated, the chord is first written then a 'slash symbol' will show the number of times
  the chord should be repeated.

  Like this:

04 re performance symbol

 

 

05 performance symbol for repeat

 

 

06 symbol for repeat marks

 

 

 

  Many music performance directions have been accumulated throughout this music course. For the grade five
  examination you will be expected to know all the words and the music symbols from grade One through Five.

  Therefore; we advice you to revisit each grade, making sure you have noted all the words:

  Italian, French, German, along with their English meanings.

  Likewise: all the music signs.

  We really don't know what will come up on the important day for you, so the main point here is to say........
  be prepared!!!

  It really is worth every minute you spend, just one word, or the name and meaning of a symbol could make
  the difference.

  You need 66 marks to Pass: 90 marks will get you a Distinction.

  Good Luck;   the team at musictheory4u wish you well, go for the 90 plus, we know you can do it.

 

9 b. Part Two - Composing for Voice

 

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10. Performance Directions and Signs

Performatnce Directions and Signs

 

 

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